Neurosensory and Musculoskeletal Systems

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1. Identify the six parts of the comprehensive neurovascular assessment

To be able to effectively carry out successful analysis, the caregiver needs to follow the steps below. They must ask the patients their experiences. They need to inspect the location and radiation of the pain, and seek from the patient to rate the experiences of their pain on a simple scale. Secondly, they need to monitor the signs and the comportment of the syndrome. The physician therefore must analyze the experiences of the symptoms of the patients. Third, the caregiver needs to monitor the capillary response rates in terms of the blood flow rate and prohibition. This is ascertained through observing the color of the skin around the area of the lesion. Fourth, they have to examine the degree of paralysis and impairment of the injured limbs. Fifth, inspect if the patient is facing any numbness in the extremity of the limbs. The physician needs to press the limb and assess the responses of the patient. In addition, the sixth stage id marked by checking the pulse rate on the feet and the wrist to have a good understanding of the rate of blood flow. Finally, the physician needs to compare the rates of blood flow for either sides of the body and limbs. These results should be compared to the baseline conditions before the injury. 

2. Provide the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease along with the symptoms.

This condition is the most common form of dementia. It is characterized by the manifestation of stress and inability to remember recent events easily. This leads the victims to exhibit isolation and withdrawal from their close associates and family. The patients show occurrences of some plagues in the brain. Moreover, the patients show cognitive impairment and as the conditions advances, the patients exhibit language impairment and perception problems. There are competing hypotheses about the real causes of the condition. The amyloid hypothesis posits that beta-amyloid deposits in the brain and neuroskeletal system that triggers the condition (Cummings, 1992). The other hypothesis observes that the gradual decline of the production of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter of the brain that is responsible for the development of the condition. 

3. Provide the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease along with the symptoms.

This is a problem of the central nervous system characterized by degeneration. The declining vitality of the dopamine releasing cells is at the very centre of the causes of the condition.  The patients experience movement impairment, characteristics of shaking and rigidity of limbs which later result in cognitive problems. The condition is acknowledged as idiopathic despite some studies pointing to genetic causes. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of Lewy body within the neurons. The body of the patient is observed to tremor and as the progression of the condition advances, the conditions of movement become more constrained.

4. Identify the appropriate plan of care for patients with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

Patients experiencing these conditions demand extensive care. They need to be assisted in most chores and personal grooming issues because of the difficulty of constrained limbs and body inflexibility.

5. Differentiate the common types of seizures, including clinical manifestations.

The common types of seizures experienced by patients differ in magnitude of the extent of paralysis and duration of the seizure. Seizures also vary in the extent to which the recur and the effect they leave on the patients.

6. Develop appropriate nursing care of patients experiencing seizures

Patients experiencing seizures need a special care to relieve the seizure as well as limit the possibility of physical injury during the progression of the attack. 

7. Identify the genetic and environmental influences on development of PD, AD, and Huntington disease.

8. Explain the role of the nurse when caring for a patient with muscular dystrophy.

The role of the nurse in many clinical interventions is to facilitate the administration of medication, the provision of therapy and care for the patients under the observation and instructions of the doctors.

9. Discuss the plan of care that meets the special needs of older adults with hip fractures, including interventions to increase mobility.

Older adults with hip fractures need a specialized care to facilitate their mobility. This is due to the general frailty of the body they experience because of old age.

10. Identify appropriate nursing care needed to maintain traction and external fixation for patients with fractures.

Patients suffering from fractures need extensive care because their experience of pain is a bit pronounced. The first approach is the administration of pain relievers. They also need care that reduces the movement and disturbance of the parts of the body where the fracture occurred (Shakoor & Moisio, 2004). Fastening and reinforcing the bone structure around the fracture need to be implemented as soon as the nature and extent of the fracture is established.

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