Problem Solving

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Introduction

            The developmental stage in infants is proportional to the problem-solving capabilities with the cognitive and physical factors being the constant of this proportionality. In real essence, this is a view of how well the infants might reach the solutions to problems affecting their own life without the influence from the patrons. The cognitive developmental theory puts children at a rapid rate of acquisition of knowledge through interaction with the environment, where there is modification and formation of the psychological structures to be coherent with the realities of life. This automated systems of action without the influence of those next of kin helps in solution to problems affecting their own life.

For instance, a situation where a toddler climbs a chair to reach for a plaything putting on a raised ground shows how the psychological structures link with their own perceptions of how the adult races use stairs to reach the highest floors above the ground (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2011). Even though, their resolutions to problems do not contribute to the development of the adult race surrounding them, it affects the child’s life through creation of satisfaction with his own feelings.

This essay explores the problem solving under the category of the lens of the themes; the most basic issues about children’s thinking are ‘what to develop? Moreover, how does development occur? On the other hand, four change processes contribute to cognitive development being automatization, encoding, generalisation and strategy construction. In addition, it looks through the lenses of the theme, infants and very young children are far more cognitively competent than they appear. They possess a rich set of abilities that allow them to learn rapidly (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2011).

            The first theme is an insight to what develops in children and how it develops in terms of thinking capacity. Correlation of this capacity with the issue of problem-solving is influential in understanding developmental stages in children.

The developmental parts in children are majorly the cognitive and the physical parts, while growth in the brain determines the capacity in decision-making. The nature of growth in infant’s brain spans from the increase in size to the changes in particular structures within the brain with a consequent change in the cells that are commonly known as neurons. The nature and capacity of the brain lie within the age bracket of the child, where a newborn carries whooping 400 grams of the brain in the cortex. The change occurs with the factors like the environment and health being the contributory factor or the setback to result in a weight capacity of 1450 grams at adulthood. This transition shows what grows in a child to depict a difference in the psychological approach to life.  On the other hand, the changes evident within the developmental stages of life are depicted by changes in the brain structures. 

            This is to mean that the individual functional parts of the brain become complex to effect a different set of reasoning capacity within the mind of a child. For instance, the maturity level of the cortex differs at birth, while it advances with growth, bearing in mind that the cortex is influential to the cognitive capabilities. That is why some children are not able to perform some activities at a young age, but as these structures develop, they are able to perform the functions. This development in structures is critical in the issue of problem-solving, since it helps children in identification of faces, where they align themselves to some community affiliations, due to maturity in structures that affect perception. This implies that they are able to recall faces that are within their proximity bringing about affiliation preferences to individuals who are at their patronage, especially the mother. This also results in the feeling of insecurity when in a strange companionship of care. Development in neurons is reflected in the five common senses, which are vital for acquisition of more knowledge and interaction with the environment. This results in a form of survival, where they are capable to communicate their needs, although in informal methods like crying to symbolise a need for a form of aid.

            The nature of these developments occurs through synthesis of new cells in the body, where the process of nutrition determines the eventuality of growth. Once food is ingested into the system, it is absorbed into the bloodstream to aid in body functions, while excess food is stored in terms of starch. This stored food aids in the synthesis of new cells through the process of cell division to result in increased growth. Since the process of cell formation is rapid in children, it affects the feeding trend, where there is a need for frequent feeding as a physiological process in life. Depending on the age, the children react to the need for this physiological process through crying as a form of communication to the nutritional needs. This implies that the developmental process aids children in solution to the problems underlying their own lives.

            Problem solution under the theme of the processes that contribute to cognitive development being automatization, encoding, generalisation and strategy construction is varied depending on the factors underpinning each process.  While encoding is the process of retrieval of information into the memory, it is fundamental in drawing a line of separation to relevancy of information, where only the most relevant information gets into the memory. The major aid of encoding in the problem solution is essentially getting only the relevant information to the memory while discarding information that is not relevant. On the other hand, automaticity is the ability to encode information without the need for an external aid. This implies that it determines one’s capabilities to process information, where it becomes relevant with age.

            At the young age, the process of automatization is void forming difficulties in processing information. However, as the brain capacity increases, the complexity with which one processes information becomes advanced to aid in the problem solution. For instance, at the age of 12, a child is able to give solutions to mathematical problems, which impacts on the eventuality of the line of profession in future. This is to say that this capability advances with time and practice, where skill imparted is essential in creating disparities between the problem stipulations. This goes a long way towards acquisition of experience in the field of problem solution as a result of afore practice in connecting events and ideas. As the child develops from an infant to an adolescent, the cognitive resources also advance due to increased automaticity capabilities. Consequently, as familiarity to the environment progresses, the child is able to advance the information processing systems due to a reduced stress on the cognitive systems with an increased capability of solution to simultaneous problems.

            The other process relevant within this theme is the strategy construction, which is a formulation of new forms of information processing. This is relevant in the problem solution, since it determines the practicality of a past situation through encoding of useful information about a problem then analysing it with past experience. This aids in the best outcomes cultivated from a past situation. In real essence, new forms of processing of information depend on prior experience and the process of encoding encrypted data, where the relevance depends on the environmental factors that prevail.  The revelation of these experiences might be a source of solution to new sorts of problems, where this could be integrated in every field (Weimer, 2010). The practice of integration of solutions to problems such that one area of solution is applicable to all fields requiring decision-making is what entails generalisation. This aspect is always evident as the child developmental stages advance in the infant stage, the rule for generalisation is mild, while it is more pronounced at adolescence. Moreover, the systems of generalisation to the problem solution becomes complex at adulthood. These adjustments to situations result in application of the previous responses to new situations in self modification, where a person is able to apply general knowledge to all situations of the problem solution.

            The other issue for deliberation is the cognitive appearance in children and infants, where they seem far more competent than they appear. This is from the fact that they portend a rich set of abilities that allow them to learn rapidly. This is also in relation to the notion that children are in greater control of their own external environment at early stages in life. This is depicted through the violation of expectation method, where there are the deviations from the norm in terms of how acquisition of knowledge is concerned. The research underlying this test depends on familiarising children to events that are most expected in that they portray linearity with reality (Campbell & Smith, 1997). Contradicting this with habituating the child to an event that is no-expected or one that is not in consistence with reality can help give conclusions about the rate of acquisition of knowledge. The revelations behind these tests show that children tend to give more thought of concentration to the unexpected event, since it provides a sense of curiosity. This sense of curiosity is what determines the rate of the learning process, where infants and young children evidently learn at a faster rate.

            For instance, tossing a plaything at an infant could be an expected event, while changing the position of reappearance of the plaything is termed the unexpected event. Through this synthesis, it results in a clear darting of the eyes of the infant to the most probable location for re-emergence of the plaything. This shows that the rate of knowledge of trends of emergence of the plaything is high at this stage, depicting the ability to learn rapidly. The competence in the cognitive part might also be tested through this method to reveal how children concentrate on what happens around them. This is essential in the problem solution, since the child can be able to reach out for the plaything without external intervention. In real essence, this is a theme that proves how a child gets attraction to what happens around him, thus, testing the ability of involvement of the mind through concentration on events happening, while contradictions may be through creation of destruction to the event. This deviation from the normal event is what proves the competence in the cognitive part of the child’s life (Campbell & Smith, 1997).

            Conclusively, the child development shows a wide range of capabilities to the solution of problems, where they interact with the existing environment and the people around them to result in acquisition of knowledge. The knowledge is essential in determining the eventuality of the problem-solution process as it affects the course of action in the infant. The ability of solutions to these problems depends on the developmental stages, where the cognitive and physical elements of growth are always constant in that they do not differ from one infant to the other, but entirely depend on the age.

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