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Art is the human energy to duplicate, supplement, modify, or counter the work of natural surroundings. It is a situation whereby human beings organize sounds, colours, systems, movements or other essentials in a mode that affects the logic of beauty, precisely the production of the gorgeous in a graphic or pliable medium. Art covers many fields ranging within music, beauty, literature, architecture, sculpture and many more. On the other hand, fashion is a term for a popular style or practice. This is mainly sumptuous in clothes, shoes, fittings, beauty makeup, and furniture. Fashion refers to a distinguishing and often certain habits of people portrayed in their mode of dressing, as well as the prevalent styles in behaviour. Fashion does not only apply to women only but also to men. At the same time, fashion is not only about clothing and the studies related to it but also application of costumes and the art of applying beauty products.
There exists a clear relationship between art and fashion. To begin with, fashion defines art. This is mainly because fashion cannot be designed if people do not know art. Both art and fashion describe something. They give an expression of something that already exists. Both of them have the element of scheming something. In fashion, someone designs a dress, blouse or a costume and the same happen when someone designs a painting or a sculpture. Over the years, art has been influencing fashion to a great extent. Men and women always like to wear new things. To give these people new things there must be someone involved in art. This means that there must be people who apply their creativity to design them. The most noticeable similarity between art and fashion is that they have similar backgrounds: their work outlines are similar, and their conceptualization is also the same as stated by Mackrell (2005). However, art and fashion are two different things. In fashion, fashion designers project, construct and figure, however, artists craft and imagine. In short, we can say that fashion is more of unintended, rather expressive approach, and, on the other hand, art is planned in advance, and it is thoroughly calculated creation.
There is a linkage between launte conture and modern art and surrealism. Surrealism is a traditional and art association that started in the 1920s. It includes all forms of art such as statue, music, collected works and film. This shows that the idea of painting, curving, shooting movies and composing songs has its roots to surrealism. It is out of creations of this association that these ideas revolutionized and passed on up to the current date. Therefore, imaginative ideas, expressed in art industry today are just an application of what was invented then. After the First World War, the artists of those days had an immense desire to create their own world. They desired to transform dreams and hallucinations described by Sigmund Freud. This movement was to transform art from an imaginative thing to a real substance, which has a meaning and impact. Surrealism invented the idea that art is not about education and intellect but general knowledge and creativity.
The surrealist association was created in Paris by an insignificant group of writers and artists who wanted to channel the unconscious as means to unravel the power of thoughts. As stated earlier, this was influenced by a psychologist known as Sigmund Freud. Karl Marx motivated them and made them believe that revelations were found everywhere on everyday life, and these revelations could be turned into a reality through art. They were determined to tap the sub conscious mind and this interest made an unexpected impact that is even felt today.
Surrealism is seen as the most significant movement that existed in the 20th century. The greatest initiators of surrealism are artists who contributed immensely in the world of photography and avant-garde art. It is their contribution to the movement that attracted a massive audience to style. Fields of art, photography and film, came to be known through these figures that include Salvador Dali and Man Ray. Surrealism became an official movement in 1924, following the analysis of Baudot (2002). This was the period when Andre Breton wrote a book clearly defining the movement. Andre Breton defined the movement as the process, through which one expresses thoughts in a verbal way or in any other way apart from the written one, which would have a meaning.
It should be noted that surrealism was not only concerned with painting but also with imagery. Some artists like Bressai portrayed a wide range of photography work. The idea of surrealism led to the rise of the surrealist fashion. This was a kind of fashion that was inspired by the surrealist artists. The surrealist fashion was composed of amazing styles of clothes.
The surrealist fashion was mainly used in the film industry and it was very hard to see people wearing such clothes during normal days according to the writings of Mackrell (2005 ). Most of the designs developed from the surrealist fashion were very hilarious as they contained funny designs in them. When one has a critical look at them, it is noticeable that they a deep meaning in them. In most cases, the designs were a representation of a certain aspect of nature brought out in it. This was a revolution of the surrealist designs that they had put in sketchy forms during the beginning of the movement.
There are many other known Surrealist designs such as haute couture. This design simply means the art of sewing high dresses and it involves the creation of tradition- fitted clothes. This design involved the creation of expensive clothes made from high quality fibres. The art involved a lot of expertise and was usually time consuming. The techniques were mainly executed by hands thus making it labour intensive. The clothes were created for specific customers whereby their actual measurements had to be taken.
Most of the amazing designs recognized in the world were surrealist designs. They were full of creativity and innovations. This gives the success behind the fashion industry today. One is able to locate successful designs all over the world which were inspired by the surrealist fashion. One of such noticeable centres is Surrealist Free Lunch in California which deals with women clothing.
Apart from the designs made by Elsa and the Haute Couture ones, there were othe fantastic designs not only in clothing but also in nature. Some of the architectural designs well known all over the world were the creations of the surrealist designers.
And many more which represented amazing features.
The key link between fashion and surrealism is represented through ideas of Salvador Dali and Elsa Schiaparelli. Throughout the time when surrealist movement functioned, both the primary and subordinate tools were used to show the link between worlds of surrealism and fashion.
Surrealism led to the most controversial movement in literature. It is out of this movement that art and literature revolutionised. Surrealist artists became more creative than ever and what resulted was more advanced art work. This did not only apply in films and photography, but also in painting, drawing and sculpture. All of these are components of literature that made it appear the way it does today.
There are significant numbers of artists who are associated with the surrealism. To begin with, there was Jean Arp who presented unique designs by cutting different shapes from either wood or paper. He would have then arranged them in a unique pattern creating beautiful and stunning images. He was involved not only in paintings but also in poetry, collages and sculpture. His works were usually identified as full of hilarity and sensuality. Hans Bellmer is another artist associated with surrealism. He could do art and, also, write. He presented fascinating objects, drawings as well as photography, which were mainly in the shape of human beings. Victor Brauner cannot be forgotten. He made paintings out of wood where he would melt wax on it to create different images. Leonora Carrington was an artist from Great Britain who was also a member of surrealistic movement. She was one of the noticeable female artists who presented her paintings in the form of dream-like images, which presented a picture of myths. Georgio de Chirico contributed immensely to the development of surrealistic movement. He painted images characterized by blank town squares with dark air passageways. His pictures brought the idea of total loneliness and solitude (Mackrell 2005). Salvador Dali was an artist from Spain who joined the surrealists in Paris in 1929. He began his artist work at a remarkably tender age, and he was mainly influenced by Freud’s theory. His paintings were mainly on the nature, and he drew pictures of shadowy landscapes with melting substances. He is one of the artists with a wide range of works ranging from photos, holographs, costume jewellery, film scripts and collected works. He even conceived and designed a building, which was later opened as an international museum. These are among the many surrealism artists whose works were significant and they played a key roles in the evolution of fashion.
Elsa Schiaparelli is a well-known scholar in the field of fashion. The interest in fashion began when she was in school since she spent most of her life in museums (Blum 2003). While in Paris, Elsa began to make her own clothes and this motivated her to open a business of her own. Schiaparelli sourced her motivation mainly from Dada and Surrealism, which gave a foundation to her fashion career. She worked closely with one of the surrealist artist, Salvador Dali. Some of the designs she made are shown below. It was during these collaborations that Elsa made these attractive designs.
She also collaborated with the shoe hat and the tears dress, which further nurtured her career. It is noted that one of the best dresses that Elsa made was when she collaborated with Dali. One of the famous dresses that Dali and Elsa made was known as Lobster dress. This dress was white, made of silk and was popularly known as an evening dress. Elsa also made another dress known as tears dress. This was pale blue in colour and was also an evening dress. There was another one she designed known as the skeleton dress. This was also designed in association with Dali. Dali finally designed a hat known as a shoe hat. This hat had a design of a woman’s high-heeled shoe though slanted on one side. Elsa was not only a designer in clothes but also in perfumes and jewellery. She had quite a good number of perfumes which were known for their unique bottles. One of her best perfume was known as shocking.
A wide variety of jewellery was also a unique design of Schiaparelli. She developed a beautiful necklace in 1938 known as rhomboid. It was a plastic necklace with features of metallic insects. These jewelleries were produced by Jean Clement and Jean Piere. These, together with Dali, helped the talent of Elsa to grow tremendously. Her works also included film costumes: she designed wardrobes for various films.
Following the life of Elsa Schiaparelli, it is clear that she combined both the Surrealist and Dada ideas to develop her fashion career. She converted the skills of surrealist artists like Dali into fashion. This is the reason behind her success in the clothes and the jewellery she made.
Avant-garde is a fashion style developed through innovation, and it is a form of revolution in the fashion industry. The kinds of clothes designed through the avant-garde are full of creativity and can only be worn in the theatre. It is a style that was developed by some olden day’s artists, some of which were surrealists and Dadaists. Some avant-garde artists like Jean Piere were the collaborators with Elsa Schiaparelli to develop film costumes.
To sum up, there is an acclaimed relationship between art, fashion and surrealism. The modern art and fashion is simply surrealism upgraded. The art and the fashion we see today helps to keep the spirit of surrealism alive. It was out of surrealism that art and fashion was revolutionised. Today, there are artists in both music and written literature such as poetry and oral literature. There is also theatre art and film industry, which is an extension of ideas and works of surrealist. Painting and drawing are the common aspect of life today as many people earn a living out of it. The clothes fashion cannot be left behind; they have led to the rise of fashion shows.