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Cultural competency in surveys is essential as is helps researchers to produce studies of high quality. Additionally, awareness of cultural diversity helps researchers develop effective and inclusive study ideas. Furthermore, consideration of diversity assists in developing study questions, design, data collection strategies, consent activities, hypotheses and analysis and interpretation of data (Douglas & Carol, 2012). It is essential to consider diversity since culture encompasses all aspects of a person’s inner and external life. 

Failure to consider cultural diversity when doing research can be detrimental to the outcome of a study. The conclusions drawn from a study that did not consider cultural diversity may lack universal applicability. Hence, the conclusions made from a study performed in one place may not be applied in another place. Secondly, a study that did not consider diversity and culture is likely to lack reliability and validity (Douglas & Carol, 2012). A study may overlook the role played by religion in interpreting sexuality hence provide inconclusive results.    

Three theories that explain development are the Nature versus Nurture theory, Vygotsky’s Social Development theory and Piaget’s four-stage theory. Nature versus Nurture theory argues about the significance of a person’s inborn trait against his experiences in influencing his aesthetic traits and deeds. Francis Galton developed this theory and it examined the effects of genetics and the surroundings on a person’s development (Boyd & Bee, 2012).

On the other hand, Vygotsky argued that learning affected a person’s development. Vygotsky’s theory emphasized the importance of social relations on cognitive development. He judged that the society played a critical part in creating meaning. Thus, he argued that all roles in a minor’s cultural advancement appear twice. They appeared on communal and personal levels.

Finally, Piaget provided the last developmental theory. The Piaget’s four-stage theory states that development comes before learning. The theory provides different stages of intellectual advancement from early life to maturity. The stages are the sensory-motor, pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational stages (Boyd & Bee, 2012). This theory is more advanced compared to the other two as it provides a structured explanation for development. Moreover, it examined the development of thought, logic and knowledge over time.     

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