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Introduction

When the research is conducted and all the data are gathered, the next goal is to make sure that this research is analysed, so that it can be aligned with the set goals and objectives (Balaji 2010). According to Wang, Storey and Firth (1995) and Craft (2001), the main purpose of analysing the results of the conducted study is to align the data to the objectives that were set out initially. Also, the initially formulated hypothesis are attested against this analysis and proven null or otherwise.

The discussion of results and their analysis and presentation form the last step in the progress of study. Here, critical analysis is conducted on the qualitative data presented in the previous chapter; the data is presented in the form of charts, graphs, tables or in other media format for quick study and understanding (Bachi nd). Data analysis is also a very crucial step for any study. It involves the methodological and systematic way of reviewing the data collected and decompressing or expanding it for a better understanding of the whole scenario. In this chapter, there will be a number of subtopics broken down into the various elements, which they shall represent. These subtopics include the actual discussion of the results in form of analysis and the data review, both qualitatively and quantitatively, presentation of the data, conclusion and finally recommendations.

In order to avoid confusion and make discussion easier, the two sources of data, primary sources and secondary sources, will be discussed separately. Breaking the course of work in a number of tasks helps to avoid the confusion and shorten the length of time taken to present the work effectively. It also increases the level of accuracy by concentrating on one thing at a time.

5.2 Primary sources

The primary sources of data that have been used in this research study include: direct interview, use of questionnaires and focus groups discussion. The responses from direct interviews were recorded in the researcher’s note book. All the 40 questionnaires were filled and raw data from these questionnaires will be discussed here. A sample of the questionnaire that was used is given in the appendix section (Appendix I and Appendix II).

5.2.1 Distribution of Nigerian population in UK

From the results given on the Nigerians` demographic distribution in the United Kingdom, the following table can be used to give a summary of the population distribution over the years.

Year

2001 Census

2011 Census

No of Nigerians living in UK (But not working)

88,000

175,000

No of Nigerians living and working in the UK

-

25,000

From the table above, obtained from the UK Office for national statistics (2011), the number of people of Nigerian origin living in the UK has been on a stable increase within the last ten years (from 2001 to 2011). The percentage increase in the populations of Nigerians living in the UK in these ten years is approximately 50%. Although the 2001 figures for the number of people of Nigerian origin living and working in the UK are not available, it is to be assumed that the figures also increased in accordance to the population increase; and putting this rate at a 50% mark up, the number of people of Nigerian origin living and working in the United Kingdom can be estimated to be 12,571 people in 2001. This figure constituted of 14.3% of the total population in 2001. This means that 85% of the population living in the country had no access to recognized formal employment. A number of reasons could have been attributed to this discrepancy. Some of the reasons are: the lack of skills and experience to handle good formal jobs and maybe the managers of different companies did not want to give them jobs. 14% of Nigerians, who were given some form of employment, were working in low profile jobs, mostly those that needed more muscle as opposed to skills. Examples are guards, construction workers and couriers. The others who had no formal employment had to rely on their friends or relatives, who were working, or on other vices such as stealing or robbing.

By 2011, the figure of those Nigerians legally employed has increased to 25,000. However, this figure does not reflect an increase in the percentage of Nigerians who are legally employed. The percentage is still stagnated at 14% when leveled against the proportionate increase in the level of the population from 88,000 in 2001 to 175, 000 in 2011. The percentage of those unemployed still stands at 85% in year 2011. Some reasons for this stagnation could be formulated here. The sectors, where these people work, could have faced stagnation; it means that there number of jobs was not equal to the number of people. When jobs are not created fast enough to cater for the growing population, there will always be a situation of unemployment (Bell &Blanchflower 2010; Verdugo et al 2012).

5.2.2 Industries and sectors where Nigerians work in the UK

The table below shows a summary of the various sectors and industries in which these employees work. This table is an excerpt from the sample questionnaire in the Appendix I.

INDUSTRY/SECTOR

Number of workers

Distribution by percentage

Mining & Construction

13

32%

Manufacturing

12

30%

Services

5

12.5%

Processing (packaging, on-loading & off-loading)

8

20%

Transport services

1

2.5%

Other (Specify)

1

2.5%

Total

40

100%

From these results, it is observed that mostly these workers are concentrated in mining and construction as well as manufacturing industries. These two sectors comprise over 62% of the sample size interviewed. The processing industry follows close with 20% of the people interviewed. It should be noted that the top three industries and sectors that offer jobs to the majority of these Nigerian workers are companies that are labour intensive as they rely on manual labour. From these results, a number of implications could be made as follows:

  • Most of these workers of Nigerian origin do not have the necessary skills to get white collar jobs
  • The jobs given to them are the only jobs that their English managers could preserve for them
  • There are not enough white collar jobs to fit the demands of the skilled Nigerian workers

Most of these jobs are low paid. In order to figure out the amount of money that these workers received for their services the following rubric was included in the interview section

Grading rubric of compensation

Number of employees

Percentage

representation

Very poor

(the amount of money paid for services is rendered not enough to cater for their needs)

16

40%

Poor

(the amount of money paid for services is rendered barely enough to cater for their needs)

14

35%

Fair

(the amount paid is just enough to cater for their needs)

6

15%

Good

(the amount paid to the workers slightly excesses their demands)

2

5%

Very good

(the amount paid for work done exceeds the needs of the workers. Workers are able to save little money)

1

2.5%

Excellent

(The amount paid for work done is way above the needs of the workers. Workers are capable of saving money as well as buying luxury goods)

1

2.5%

Total

40

100%

From this table, it is evident that most of the workers of Nigerian descent in United Kingdom are being paid wages that are below average. Most of them barely survive. The majority of the workers (40%) earn incomes that are barely enough to get them through the day. Most of them complain of being underpaid and overworked. This poor payment could have resulted from a number of factors. The economy could be undergoing a recession or a tumult that could force the industries to the pay cuts. The employees of Nigerian descent could be lacking the necessary skills required in the market and hence they find that they are low paid because of this factor. This forces the workers to take double and sometimes even triple shifts to cover for this economic problem and try to make ends meet. Only a very small percentage is comfortable with what they get. Out of the sample population of 40 respondents, only one person (2.5%) felt that the compensation received for his job was more than enough to sustain him; moreover, it even enables him to do some investment and maybe even buy some luxurious goods.

5.2.3 Inter-cultural interactions at home and workplaces

According to the results, the concentration of people of Nigerian origin in one area in the United Kingdom, Peckham, points out their reluctance to accept inter–cultural interactions with other communities and races.  Nigerians in UK, as the results indicate, are still very much in touch with their culture and national heritage back at home in Nigeria. This is observed and evident because the majority of Nigerians, living in cities in the UK, speak the Yoruba language, their native tongue. This distinction puts invisible barriers between Nigerians living and working in the UK and other people of different origins and ethnic groups in the country.

Another cultural difference between Nigerians and other ethnic groups in the cities is the religion. Nigerians are predominantly Muslims, while most of the other people they interact with belong to other religions, such as Christianity. This has led to the fact that Nigerians build mosques as their places of worship in the neighborhoods where population of Nigerians is abundant. The following rubric was also used among the sample population of 40 Nigerians in the UK to determine how they perceived the inter-cultural relations between themselves and other people in the United Kingdom at the places of work and residence.

Grading Rubric – inter-cultural relations

Number of workers

Percentage

composition

Very constrained

2

5%

Fairly constrained

17

42.5%

Moderately constrained

9

22.5%

Not constrained

9

22.5%

Very comfortable

3

7.5%

Total

40

100%

From this table, it is evident that definitely there is a difference and constrain in the interaction of the Nigerian workers and other workers in the United Kingdom. The responses of the sample population put the percentage of those who thought that the relationships were constrained at a whopping 70%. 9 people out of 40 thought that the relationship between them and other people of other origin was okay. Only 3 people, comprising 7.5% of the sample population, felt that the relationship was very comfortable and not at all constrained by any factors whatsoever (Oskamp 2000).

The differences in the relationship between Nigerians, working in the UK, and other workers could have arisen from several dimensional areas. First, the adoption of the direct and uncut culture from Africa in the distant land of the UK has led to these Nigerians being branded as being primitive and outdated. The common African language of Yoruba, practiced widely among many Nigerian people in the UK, also alienates the Nigerian workers from their counterparts at work.

5.2.4 Challenges at work

There are quite a number of challenges that these people face at their work places in the United Kingdom as seen from the results. One of the major challenges, according to the results of the study, is discrimination. Discrimination here takes many forms and usually it is based on race, religion, descent, colour and even gender.

The discrimination is felt, as many of the respondents believe, mostly among the females. Only 9 out of 40 respondents interviewed, were females. The figures from the statistics board of the United Kingdom show that in 2001, the number of female employees was approximately 1100 out of 14000 employed in these industries in the country. This forms an approximated 8% of the total number of Nigerians, working in different industries in the United Kingdom. The following table offers a quick breakdown of the scenario.

Workers` gender in theUK

Male

Percentage of males

Female

Percentage of

females

2001

12,900

92%

1100

8%

2011

21,350

85.4%

3650

14.6%

From the table, the number of females employed in various industries in the United Kingdom has seen a rise from 1100 to 3650 in 2011, bringing about a percentage increase of about 6.6%. However, the number of males is still high and dominant at 85.4% down from 92% in 2011 and 2001 respectively.

This increase in the male numbers of the Nigerian workers in UK could be attributed to the increase in the population over the decade (Kotler and Keller 2009). The population increase has however not had a major impact on the number of females. Male gender is preferred over the female gender when Nigerians are employed; as a result there is discrimination on the basis of gender (Hernández-Coss, R & Bun 2007).

Other male employees also felt that they were passed for a promotion. 17 out of 27 people interviewed felt that they have been caught in the same position at work for a long time. They felt that promotions were overdue. The good and high ranking jobs in these companies were given to other people of other races who didn’t have enough experience. Priority was given to these people at the expense of Nigerians living and working in the United Kingdom.

This was interpreted as discrimination based on colour. The British feel more comfortable having close working relationship with people of their own country or at least of the same skin color.

Majority of the Nigerian immigrants, living and working in the United Kingdom, feel that they are sidelined when it comes to the job placements, promotions and even remuneration. According to Hannay (n.d), most times people, who go to other countries to seek employment opportunities, are faced with the barriers of full recognition, especially if they are coming from a third world  countries to work in a more economically powerful state. This situation is what most of these Nigerians are faced with. Despite having the same qualifications and even experience as the other workers in the United Kingdom, they are still paid relatively lower than those of the UK origin. Basabe & Ros (2005) argue that equal compensation for work or activity done should always be upheld at all levels. There should be no discrimination at the work places resulting from cultural, religious or racial diversities (Lubeck, Lipschutz & Weeks 2003; Wu 2006). Manrai (2011) supports this argument, postulated by his fellow scholars, and goes on to demonstrate that religion or culture has no direct implications on the service delivery of a particular person, except maybe in a very extreme case scenario. The same case applies to the racial and religious concepts. Boone & Kurtz (2012) state that all races in the world are equal and if they have the same levels of qualification and work on the same level of employment, then they should be compensated competitively, using the particular grade and standards of employment, formally stipulated by the company in which they work. All workers at the same grade and level should be compensated equally regardless of their colour, dialect, country of origin, cultural diversity and their political dispositions (Hox & Boeije 2005).

5.3 Conclusion

The research study was trying to establish the relationship between people of the United Kingdom and Nigerian immigrants.

The cultural difference of Nigerian immigrants and managers in the United Kingdom has a profound affect on the way these Nigerians work and relate with others in the country and places of work (Polkinghorne 2005). From the results of the study, carried out in this research paper, it is evident that Nigerians in the UK have their own unique close-knit culture despite being so far from home. This variation in culture, though it does not really affect the way they perform their work, definitely has an implication on the relationship with other work mates of different cultures (Wickens 1941). They do not feel fully comfortable and assimilated into the work setups of these companies they work in, as such they may not feel motivated enough to work as hard as other employees from the UK. This slowness, though mild now, may have an adverse affect on the long-run production of the company (Miner 1985).

The cultural variations in the United Kingdom have a mild affect on the foreign employment. Despite the presence of discrimination and other inequalities among the different groups of workers from different ethnic, religious and even racial backgrounds, the country is still considered to be among one of the favored nations to work in by many nationals. This is evidenced by the high number of immigrants, who come to the country from other places. Hofstede & Bond (1984) argue that this arises from the need of the different workers to improve their lives and explore new grounds away from what they are used to.

From the study carried out with reference and respect to Nigerians living and working in the United Kingdom, it is obvious that most of them are faced with many challenges as they try to adapt to the working environment and structure of the UK in form of cultural diversity and the notion of discrimination based on gender, race, religion, country of origin or even culture (Salway et al. 2011). The whites who come into contact with different immigrants, who live and work in the country, consider their values and culture primitive and backward. An unpronounced division will be always present in such a scenario and in the UK. This is evident in the cases where the whites and residents are given preference over other immigrants at the work place and even in promotions (Wu 2006). The responses of the managers in regard to their perception of Nigerians and other African immigrants working in the country, show that they perceive the immigrants as people, who are not capable of performing the leading roles in  different organizations in which they are employed. They judge them based on their country of origin and find them somehow not fully cut for such leading roles. As such, they are always passed over when it comes to recruitments with the native whites being given preference, despite having same qualifications and skills.

5.4 Recommendations

From the findings, discussion and conclusion made in this study, the researcher feels that there is a large avenue for growth and resolution of conflicts here. The researcher believes that if these organizations found a way in which they could solve their conflicts and adapt the immigrants to work for them on an equal level, the objectives of the companies could be achieved in a better way through teamwork (Onwuegbuzie et al. 2010). Teamwork makes the work easier and takes a shorter period of time as compared to working on individual basis (Kotler & Keller 2009). The researcher has made a number of recommendations on this case and these are outlined briefly below.

The managers in different companies need to appreciate the input of Nigerians and other foreign immigrants because they help drive the system and the economy of the country (Lubeck et al 2003). They should offer equal compensation for equal work done without any form of discrimination on the basis of gender, race, religion or even cultural diversity. Remuneration packages and promotion chances should also be rationalised to make sure everybody has an equal opportunity for career advancement despite where he or she comes from (Sidanius & Veniegas 2000).

The government could maybe enact some laws and regulations for the governance of these employments and remuneration packages for workers in the country. Also, emphasis should be put on the employment of females,  who are left out at work especially if they are immigrants. They should be given equal chances if they are as qualified as men. If these issues are not handled right, the workers won’t feel motivated to work harder and this may result in loss of production in the long run (Manrai 2011).

Lastly, the Nigerian workers themselves as well as other foreign immigrants should also try to embrace the culture of their hosts and other nationalities and try to work together for the accomplishment of the company’s goals and objectives. They should try to have a harmonious correlation with these workers so as to ensure they fulfill the goals and objectives of the company as a team (Ying & Lee 2000).

If these recommendations are effected and utilised effectively, immigrants, working in foreign counties, like the UK, will find their staying their more fulfilling and more rewarding.

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